# Excel Nested If’s – Explained

In our last post we talked about IF Statement, which is one of the most important functions in Excel.  The limitation of IF statement is that it has only two outcomes. But if you are dealing with multiple conditions then Excel Nested If’s can come very handy.

Nested if’s are the formulas that are formed by multiple if statements one inside another. This nesting makes it possible for a single formula to take multiple decisions. In Excel 2003 nesting was only possible up to 7 levels but Excel 2007 has increased this number to 64.

### Syntax of Excel Nested If formula:

The syntax of Nested If statement is as follows:

`=IF(Condition_1,Value_if_True_1,IF(Condition_2,Value_if_True_2,Value_if_False_2))`

Here, ‘Condition_1’ refers to the condition used in the first IF.

Value_if_True_1’ will be the result if first IF statement is True.

Condition_2’ is the condition used in the second IF. The second IF will only come into pictue when the First IF statement results a False value.

Value_if_True_2’ will be the result if second IF statement is True.

Value_if_False_2’ will be the result if second IF statement is False.

This is equivalent to:

```IF Condition1 THEN Value_if_True1 THEN Value_if_True2 ELSE Value_if_False2 END IF```

### Example of Nested IF’s in Excel:

Now, let’s understand Nested If’s with an example.

Example 1:

In the below image an Employee table of a company is shown. The company decides to give bonus to its employees but their bonus criteria is quite strange. As you can see in the below image they are giving 20% bonus to the North Region Employees, 30% to the South Region Employees, 40% to the East Region Employees and 50% to the West Region Employees.

In this case we can use Excel Nested IF formula to find the bonus for each employee. The formula can be:

`=IF(B2="North","20%",IF(B2="South","30%",IF(B2="East","40%",IF(B2="West","50%", "Region is Invalid"))))`

The formula is quite simple, it just checks if ‘B2’ (cell that contains region details for first employee) is equal to “North”, then value should be 20%, if not then check if B2 is equal to “South”, if yes then value should be 30%, if not move on to next IF statement and so on.

Similarly for the second employee the formula would be:

`=IF(B3="North","20%",IF(B3="South","30%",IF(B3="East","40%",IF(B3="West","50%", "Region is Invalid"))))`

In this case I have handled another important thing i.e. If the Region does not matches with any one of the IF conditions then the output should be “Region is Invalid”.

Example 2:

In the second example we have a table of students and their scores. Now based on their scores we have to give a grade to the students.

Students with scores below 40 are considered as “Fail”, scores between 41 and 60 are considered “Grade C”, scores between 61 and 75 are considered “Grade B” and scores between 76 and 100 are considered as “Grade A”

In this scenario we can use a nested If formula as:

`=IF(B2<=40,"Fail",IF(AND(B2>=41,B2<=60),"Grade C",IF(AND(B2>=61,B2<=75),"Grade B",IF(AND(B2>=76,B2<=100),"Grade A"))))`

This formula just checks if B2 (cell containing the score of first student) is less than or equal to 40, if true then the value should be “Fail” if not then check the next IF condition and so on.

You can see that here in the inner-most IF statement I haven’t used the ‘Value_if_False’ , it is perfectly alright to omit this parameter in such a case. In-case all the IF conditions in this formula will result into a False value then the formula will simply return a ‘FALSE’ keyword.

So, this was all about Nested IF Instruction. Feel free to drop your comments related to the topic.